The dissertation is concerned with the elaboration of a holistic approach to economic understanding, in particular with the concept of a reflexive didactics of economics. Building on this, basic ideas for an understanding-oriented economic education will be developed conceptually and exemplarily. The basic idea of a reflexive didactics of economics is the holistic approach to processes of understanding. For this purpose, concepts of education diagnostics and of reflective learning from educational research are combined with teaching economic reasoning, the history of ideas and the approach of an understanding-oriented economic education. The research perspective of this study is directed towards a theoretical reconstruction and mapping of the processes of economic understanding. It will be shown how a structural-genetic process of development in regard to economic understanding and reasoning can be described, and how it can be measured though education diagnostics. For the theoretical reconstruction and mapping of processes of economic understanding, the threshold concept is linked with the concept of transformative learning, the concept of reflection loops and the concept of critical thinking in order to achieve an explanation of the successive levels of understanding and reflection. In addition, a taxonomy of reflection tools will be developed which trigger reflection loops and initiate processes of understanding and reflection. Finally, the concept of a reflexive didactics of economics is exemplified along the lines of an understanding-oriented classroom approach.