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Abstract

We study the stability of trade policy arrangements under two regulatory scenarios, with/without

PTAs. Unlike previous papers, we consider an extensive set of trade policy constellations and allow for

unlimited farsightedness of negotiating parties. We find global free trade (GFT) to be uniquely stable under

symmetry, with/without PTAs. When two countries are smaller(larger) than the third, availability of PTAs

decreases (increases) the stability of GFT. Away from symmetry, GFT is not attainable, and without PTAs

the non-cooperative MFN regime is the only stable outcome. The effect of (dis-)allowing PTAs thus depends

on the size asymmetry of countries.