This dissertation addresses the high level of academic demands in the Chinese education system and the role of student resources in their academic and psychological adjustment. Using three original empirical studies, this dissertation contributes to research (1) by providing Chinese researchers and educators with a valid Chinese-language diagnostic questionnaire (QARCA-C) to measure students’ personal and environmental resources (Study I); (2) by extending and transferring
usage of the well-established Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Model to the Chinese school system (Study II & III); and (3) by investigating the relationship between academic demands, students’
resources, burnout, engagement, academic achievement, and mental health (Study II & III). Data analyses were based on N = 5,210 Chinese school students and 393 parents. The results warrant good psychometric appropriation of the QARCA-C and measurement invariance across gender and language versions. Relations to external criteria hint at cultural differences. This dissertation highlights the detrimental role of the high level of workload and academic demands as well as the protective role of student resources such as self-efficacy, optimism, positive teacher-student relationships, and grit. Furthermore, the JD-R model appears to be suitable in explaining students’ academic and psychological adjustment. Based on the findings, I propose a Student Demands-Resources Model of School Burnout, which considers important socio-demographic factors. In addition to the theoretical significance, the findings provide important political and practical implications of promoting student development. Nevertheless, further cross-cultural comparison and longitudinal studies should be conducted to study cultural equivalences and differences as well as causal relationships.