The study and characterisation of quantum entanglement represents an extended effort within the field of quantum information. This thesis addresses two problems. The first regards entanglement in open systems, where it’s more difficult to define a dichotomic (two outcome) observable due to population loss. The second problem concerns genuine multipartite entanglement, that is entanglement between many particles in states that cannot be separable with respect to any possible bipartition of a system.
The first chapter consists of an introduction to the basic elements of quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. We briefly describe a few historical facts about quantum mechanics and the study of entanglement, to help put things into perspective.
The second chapter is a detailed discussion of the neutral kaon system. These particles are produced in pairs and are described as a particle-antiparticle system. This system displays some unique properties like the violation of CP-symmetry, and shares some characteristics with other mesons, such as neutral particle oscillation and decay. This makes formulating Bell-type inequalities for them more difficult, but also provides the opportunity for new tests.
The third chapter continues with the presentation of an already existent effective formalism for performing Bell tests on neutral kaons. The essence of the formalism is a switch to the Heisenberg picture, transferring the time evolution and dependence on measurement directions to a so-called effective operator. This has many advantages, some of the most important being a proper normalization during population loss (due to decay), an easy application to
the case of multiple particles and the fact that it allows one to observe entanglement within the system for a relatively long amount of time. The final part presents a way to simulate neutral kaons with atomic systems, namely with Ytterbium isotopes and discuss what are the differences between these atomic systems and neutral kaons.
The second part of the thesis treats the problem of proving genuine multipartite entanglement from separable two-body marginals. For this, an introduction to semidefinite programming is necessary due to the fact that the problem under study can be formulated in terms of this method. We will briefly discuss linear and semidefinite programming as well as the concept of duality and provide some basic examples.
The formal description of this problem and previous results are provided in the fifth chapter. Our result shows that, through a cyclic iteration between two SDPs, one obtains states with the desired properties. Using this method we managed to go up to six qubit states for various configurations. From this we can construct higher-dimensional states having the same properties.