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α,β-unsaturated carbonyls interfere with numerous plant physiological processes. One mechanism of action is their reactivity toward thiols of metabolites like cysteine and glutathione (GSH). This work aimed at better understanding these interactions. Both 12-oxophytodienoic acid (12-OPDA) and abscisic acid (ABA) conjugated with cysteine. It was found that the reactivity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls with GSH followed the sequence trans-2-hexenal < 12-OPDA ≈ 12-OPDA-ethylester < 2-cyclopentenone << methyl vinylketone (MVK). Interestingly, GSH, but not ascorbate (vitamin C), supplementation ameliorated the phytotoxic potential of MVK. In addition, 12-OPDA and 12-OPDA-related conjugated carbonyl compounds interacted with proteins, e.g., with members of the thioredoxin (TRX)-fold family. 12-OPDA modified two cysteinyl residues of chloroplast TRX-f1. The OPDAylated TRX-f1 lost its activity to activate the Calvin–Benson-cycle enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). Finally, we show that 12-OPDA interacts with cyclophilin 20-3 (Cyp20-3) non-covalently and affects its peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase activity. The results demonstrate the high potential of 12-OPDA as a diverse interactor and cellular regulator and suggest that OPDAylation may occur in plant cells and should be investigated as novel regulatory mechanism.