Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular, pathogenic bacterium that infects several different hosts, yielding serious economic losses in livestock farming. It causes several diseases including oedematous skin disease (OSD) in buffaloes, ulcerative lymphangitis (UL) in horses, and caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep, goats and humans. Despite its economic and medical-veterinary importance, our understanding concerning this organism's transcriptional regulatory mechanisms is still limited. Here, we review the state of the art knowledge on transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of this pathogenic species, covering regulatory interactions mediated by two-component systems, transcription factors and sigma factors. Key transcriptional regulatory players involved in virulence and pathogenicity of C. pseudotuberculosis, such as the PhoPR system and DtxR, are in the focus of this review, as these regulators are promising targets for future vaccine design and drug development. We conclude that more experimental studies are needed to further understand the regulatory repertoire of this important zoonotic pathogen, and that regulators are promising targets for future vaccine design and drug development.
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