Members of the genera Proteiniphilum and Petrimonas were speculated to represent indicators reflecting process instability within anaerobic digestion (AD) microbiomes. Therefore, Petrimonas mucosa ING2-E5AT was isolated from a biogas reactor sample and sequenced on the PacBio RSII and Illumina MiSeq sequencers. Phylogenetic classification positioned the strain ING2-E5AT in close proximity to Fermentimonas and Proteiniphilum species (family Dysgonomonadaceae). ING2-E5AT encodes a number of genes for glycosyl-hydrolyses (GH) which are organized in Polysaccharide Utilization Loci (PUL) comprising tandem susCD-like genes for a TonB-dependent outer-membrane transporter and a cell surface glycan-binding protein. Different GHs encoded in PUL are involved in pectin degradation, reflecting a pronounced specialization of the ING2-E5AT PUL systems regarding the decomposition of this polysaccharide. Genes encoding enzymes participating in amino acids fermentation were also identified. Fragment recruitments with the ING2-E5AT genome as a template and publicly available metagenomes of AD microbiomes revealed that Petrimonas species are present in 146 out of 257 datasets supporting their importance in AD microbiomes. Metatranscriptome analyses of AD microbiomes uncovered active sugar and amino acid fermentation pathways for Petrimonas species. Likewise, screening of metaproteome datasets demonstrated expression of the Petrimonas PUL-specific component SusC providing further evidence that PUL play a central role for the lifestyle of Petrimonas species.
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