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Abstract

The targeting movements of a human arm were examined when restricted to a horizontal plane. The three joints at shoulder, elbow, and wrist are allowed to move. Thus, the system is redundant and needs constraints. A model calculation using a simple form of constraint is found to describe the experimental results: a cost function is applied to each joint. The constraint consists in minimizing the sum of the costs of all three joints. The cost functions might be interpreted as to describing the energy cost necessary to move the joint and/or represent a mechanism which avoids singularities.